A job hazard analysis (JHA) identifies the hazards of each task performed for a given job. It uncovers hazards that may have been overlooked during the layout of a plant, or in the design of the machinery, equipment, tools, workstations and processes. It also analyzes hazards that may have developed after production started or that resulted from a change in work procedures.
- Gives direction when training new employees on safe job procedures.
- Outlines safety guidelines that must be followed.
- Identifies the personal protective equipment necessary to perform a task.
- When possible, eliminates known hazards from a job.
JHA Form Completion Method
A JHA is a first line of defense in preventing accidents by identifying hazards and eliminating them prior to beginning a job. It should be used:
- As a training tool for new employees.
- As a retraining tool for employees on jobs that are only done periodically.
- For accident investigations.
- To provide a list of required personal protective equipment.
It is important to set priorities when doing an analysis. Jobs that have resulted in numerous injuries should be completed first. Jobs that have the potential to cause disabling injuries or even death should also be high in priority.
Once you have selected a job to analyze, discuss the procedure with the employee who performs the job. Explain that the purpose of this analysis is to study the job itself and make sure it is safe. Involve the employee(s) in all phases of the JHA, from reviewing the job steps, to discussing potential hazards and recommending solutions. You should also involve employees who have performed the job in the past.
List Steps Required For Job
The first step in performing a JHA is to break down the job into steps. Each step should accomplish a major task. Make sure all of the steps required to do the job are included. Some steps may not be required each time the task is done, but they need to be included. Be sure to record enough information to describe each job step without being overly-detailed.
After you have listed the job steps, examine each one and determine the hazards that exist or that might occur. To do this, ask questions such as:
- Does the employee wear protective clothing and equipment, including a safety belt or harness, that is appropriate for the job?
- Are work positions, machinery, pits/holes, and hazardous operations adequately guarded?
- Are lockout procedures used for machinery deactivation during maintenance procedures?
- Does the employee wear clothing or jewelry that could get caught in machinery?
- Are there fixed objects that may cause injury such as sharp machine edges?
- Is the flow of work improperly organized (e.g., is the employee required to make movements that are too rapid)?
- Can the employee get caught in or between machine parts?
- Can reaching over moving machinery, parts, or materials injure the employee?
- Is the employee in an off-balance position at any time?
- Is the employee positioned relative to the machine in a way that is potentially dangerous?
- Is the employee required to make movements that could cause hand or foot injuries, or strain from lifting?
- Can the employee be struck by an object, or lean against or strike a machine part or object?
- Can the employee be injured from lifting or pulling objects, or from carrying heavy objects?
- Do environmental hazards, such as dust, chemicals, radiation, welding flash, heat or excessive noise, result from the performance of the job?
Repeat the job observation as often as necessary until all hazards have been identified.
Recommend Safe Procedures and Protection
After you have made a list of hazards, or potential hazards, and have reviewed them with the employee who performs the job, determine if the job could be performed in a different way to eliminate hazards. For example, hazards might be reduced by combining steps, changing the sequence, or providing safety equipment and taking additional precautions. If safety precautions and better job steps can be used, list each new step. List exactly what the employee needs to know to perform the job following the new method. Be as specific as you can in your recommendations. TheJHA is a great tool for training employees on new procedures.
If no new procedures can be developed, determine whether hazards can be reduced or eliminated by making physical changes to the equipment, changing tools, or adding machine guards, personal protective equipment, or ventilation. If hazards are still present, try to eliminate the necessity of doing the job or the frequency of doing it. Review the recommendations with the employee performing the job. Get suggestions for eliminating or reducing the hazards from them. Make sure they understand the reason for the new procedures and the importance of following them.
Review and Revise JHA
A JHA is very effective in reducing accidents and injuries, but only if it is reviewed and revised. Even if there have not been changes made in a job, hazards that might have been missed in the initial analysis may become more obvious with time. If accidents or injuries occur on a specific job, the JHA should be re-evaluated. If changes are necessary, update the JHA with the new information. Once a change has been made, retrain the employee who performs the job. If the changes require additional protective clothing, it should be provided.
WCF Insurance Safety Department
NOTICE: This guide may make reference to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations; however the guide is not legal advice as to compliance with OSHA or other safety laws, codes, or regulations. Compliance with OSHA and other safety laws codes or regulations, and maintaining a safe work environment for your employees remains your responsibility. WCF Insurance does not undertake to perform the duty of any person to provide for the health or safety of your employees. WCF Insurance does not warrant that your workplace is safe or healthful, or that it complies with any laws, regulations, codes, or standards.